MongoDB vs. MySQL: Sure-Fire Databases to Uncover your Project’s True Value

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Here is a succinct comparison between MongoDB vs. MySQL to ease the project development process!

Every business needs a well-designed database to manage the underlying functionality of their projects. Finding a well-organized, functional system allows the team to perform data-related tasks with ease which is eventually crucial to the success of the business.

There are numerous tools, databases, frameworks, programming languages, platforms, and operating systems to help the organization manage its data, and finding the right one can be a daunting task. Here is a comparative study on MongoDB vs. MySQL to ease out the research work a bit:

What is a MySQL Database?

It is a widely prevalent language to communicate and manage database, constituting the database management system. Basic operations include: creating, inserting, updating, deleting and storing/managing relational databases. It is being used by top companies like LinkedIn, Google, YouTube, PayPal, Pinterest, Netflix, NASA, Walmart, US Navy, and Twitter and many more. This is an open-source relational database, which is very easy to use. Its syntax matches with that of SQL Server and it is already included in several popular web applications like Word Press.

What is MongoDB Database?

MongoDB is a database management system that works across platforms. It is classified under the category of a NoSQL database program and makes use of JSON-like documents with the schema. It is being used by many famous organizations including Klout, Citrix, Zendesk, Twitter, T-Mobile, Hootsuite, Sony, MuleSoft, SurveyMonkey, InVision and Foursquare. Industries Production, big data, data science, finance, etc.

Comparison and Differences: MongoDB vs. MySQL

Both databases support rich query languages. MySQL makes use of structured query language while MongoDB makes use of MongoDB query language (MQL) that is designed for easy use of developers. Here is a succinct comparison between MQL and SQL syntax for common database operations:

 MySQLMongoDB
Who uses?Currently, more than 5000 companies are making use of MySQL

This includes companies like Airbnb, Uber, Netflix, Dropbox, Pinterest, Twitter, Slack, Shopify, LinkedIn and many more.

Currently, more than 27,000 companies are making use of MongoDB in their projects. (Details below)
What is the database structure?
  • The database of MySQL consists of tables and rows.
  • Additionally, the schema helps define the values to be represented by a specific data type.
  • In MongoDB, all the data is stored in BSON document and the data interchange format that provides a binary representation of JSON-like documents with varied structures.
  • Related data is stored together which eventually increases the efficiency of the program.
  • It lacks schema, enabling developers to create documents without defining the structure.
  • All the documents are modifiable and uniquely structured.
  • It is scalable enough to accommodate new entries and adding or updating existing functionalities.
  • Keys can be re-used within the document.
  • MongoDB data model allows making use of complex data structures like hierarchical relationships, data arrays, and complex structures.
Storing RecordsAll records are stored in rows and columns within tables of the database.In MongoDB, each record is stored in the form of ‘documents’ instead of tables.
How is a table/collection stored in the database?A table can be used to store related data types.Documents belonging to a particular class or group as
stored in as ‘collection’ like a collection of users or collection of customers or a collection of vendors etc.
SQL or No SQLMySQL is a structured query language database management system that makes use of standard queries like insert, update, update, delete, drop, etc.  (CRUD operations)MongoDB is a NoSQL database that does not work on standard query structure. Different documents can be used in a collection to form a dynamic schema.

 

Are indexes needed?All the tables within the database are scanned by the database engine in the absence of a proper index.Every document within the collection is carefully scanned, providing a match to the query statement, in the absence of an index
More Salient FeaturesJoins can be used to reduce or remove duplication of data.MongoDB makes use of replication and sharding to provide unique records.
Rich Data ModelNot PossiblePossible
Dynamic SchemaNot PossiblePossible
Typed DataPossiblePossible
Data LocalityNot PossiblePossible
Field UpdatesPossiblePossible
Easy for programmersNot PossiblePossible
Auto-ShardingNot possiblePossible
Complex TransactionsPossibleNot possible
AuditingPossiblePossible
Security ConcernsMySQL is often subject to SQL injection attacks, making it vulnerable.

Encrypted databases operate on top of commodity DBMS so that even if the underlying system is compromised the attack is not able to obtain the data. But partial information in the form of plaintext is often leaked.

MongoDB makes use of object querying, where documents are passed to explain what is being queried. This method reduces the risk of attack as MongoDB doesn’t have a language to parse. There is no leakage.
Where and how are these databases deployed?MySQL is written in C++ and C and has binaries for the following systems: Microsoft Windows, Linux, BSDi, AIX, FreeBSD, OS X, HP-UX, NetBSD, IRIX, and more.MongoDB is written in C++, C, and JavaScript and has binaries for the following systems: OS X, Linux, Solaris, and Windows.
What types of replication/ clustering are available?MySQL supports master-slave structure making use of multisource replication allowing working of several masters to be connected with one slave.

 

MongoDB has built-in replication, sharding, and auto-elections that helps setting up of backup database automatically in case the primary database fails.

Sharding allows for horizontal scaling, which is difficult to implement in MySQL, by making use of replica sets to create multiple copies of the data.

Who’s currently behind the databases?MySQL was founded by the Finnish/Swedish company MySQL AB.

 

10gen started developing MongoDB in 2007 and has currently become a popular NoSQL database. 10gen was later renamed MongoDB, Inc.
Who provides support?MySQL offers Oracle Lifetime Support at three levels: Premier for versions 1 – 5 years, Extended for versions 6 – 8 years, and sustainable for those who wish to make use of the same version for 9+ years. Each level offers 24 x 7 support with the knowledge base, maintenance releases, bug fixes, patches, and updates.MongoDB offers Enterprise-Grade Support that gives you 24 x 7 support as well as an extended lifecycle support add-on, which allows you the flexibility to upgrade to newer versions at your own pace. Support for MongoDB gives you unlimited access to support, security fixes, updates, and more.
Who supplies ongoing development?Ongoing development is done by the Oracle Corporation.Ongoing development is done by MongoDB, Inc.
Who maintains the documentation?The MySQL documentation is maintained by the Oracle Corporation and can be found at dev.mysql.com/¬docThe MongoDB documentation is maintained by MongoDB, Inc. and can be found at https://docs.MongoDB.com/
Is there an active community?The MySQL database is owned and maintained by the Oracle Corporation. As such, they offer a Developers Zone on the MySQL website. This resource can be found at https://forums.mysql.com/. Additional information can also be found at:

  • MySQL Wiki
  • Oracle MySQL Events
  • MySQL Events
  • List of MySQL user groups
The community in MySQL is much better than NoSQL. The MongoDB community can be found at https://www.MongoDB.com/community

This page provides a variety of events, webinars, user groups, and MongoDB University.

Which database should you use for your business?There are many use cases for a relational database like MySQL. Any type of application that requires multi-row transactions such as an accounting system, would be better suited for a relational database.Variety of use cases where MongoDB is well-suited include real-time analytics, content management, the internet of things, mobile.

 

Use CasesMySQL can efficiently handle legacy applications or the applications that require multi-row transactions (i.e. accounting systems).MongoDB can efficiently handle real-time analytics, content management, internet of things, mobile apps, etc.
Risk

 

It has the risk of SQL injection attacks.Less risk of attacks due to design.
AnalysisIt can be a great choice in case the data is structured and there is a need for a traditional relational database.It is suitable in case the database (structured/unstructured) has the potential to scale rapidly in the future.
Data StructureIt has structured data with a clear schema.It does not require any schema definition.
Advantages
  • Very easy to learn and use.
  • Makes use of structured queries to retrieve information and store records in a database.

 

  • Storing data in documents speeds up the data retrieval process.
  • MongoDB allows sharding of data across the nodes in a cluster to ensure that there is no single-point-of-failure in the database server.
  • MongoDB allows for not just a primary index but also for a secondary index which is important in many applications.
  • MongoDB caches a lot of data to allow faster retrieval of the query results.
  • There are various features on MongoDB (Ad-hoc queries, Indexing, Replication, Load balancing, File storage, Aggregation, Server-side JavaScript execution, capped collections, etc.) that make it a very user-friendly database.
When not to use it?MySQL is fine for read-only or read-mostly scenarios but more advanced multi-version concurrency control capabilities of Oracle, PostgreSQL, MS SQL Server, etc.One might not want to use MongoDB while designing a core-banking system for a bank due to its non-compliance with ACID properties.

It also does not have a provision for stored procedures. So if portability is required Internal Data Access API should be used.

Code-Syntax MySQL vs. MongoDB

MySQLMongoDB
Get StartedTo download and install the “MySQL” module, open the Command Terminal and execute the following:

C:\Users\Your Name>npm install MySQL

To manipulate the MySQL database:

var mysql = require(‘mysql’);

Create Connection

var mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Connected!”);
});

To download and install the official MongoDB driver, open the Command Terminal and execute the following:

1.  Download and install the MongoDB package:

C:\Users\Your Name>npm install MongoDB

Create Databasevar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername,
password: yourpassword
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Connected!”);
con.query(CREATE DATABASE mydbfunction (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Database created”);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/mydb”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Database created!”);
db.close();
});
Create Table/Collectionvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername,
password: yourpassword,
  database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Connected!“);
var sql = CREATE TABLE customers (name VARCHAR(255), address VARCHAR(255))”;
con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Table created”);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
dbo.createCollection(“customers”, function(err, res) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Collection created!“);
db.close();
});
});
Insert Intovar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: yourusername,
password: yourpassword,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Connected!”);
  var sql = “INSERT INTO customers (name, address) VALUES (‘Company Inc’, ‘Highway 37’)”;
  con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“1 record inserted”);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
var myobj = { name: “Company Inc”, address: “Highway 37” };
dbo.collection(“customers”).insertOne(myobj, function(err, res) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“1 document inserted”);
db.close();
});
});
Select Fromvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
con.query(SELECT * FROM customers, function (err, result, fields) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
dbo.collection(“customers”).findOne({}, function(err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result.name);
db.close();
});
});
Wherevar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
con.query(“SELECT * FROM customers WHERE address = ‘Park Lane 38’function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
});
});

-NA-
Query-NA-var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
  var query = { address: “Park Lane 38” };
  dbo.collection(“customers”).find(query).toArray(function(err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
db.close();
});
});
Order Byvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
con.query(“SELECT * FROM customers ORDER BY name“, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
});
});

-NA-
Sort-NA-var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
  var mysort = { name: 1 };
  dbo.collection(“customers”).find().sort(mysort).toArray(function(err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
db.close();
});
});
Deletevar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
  var sql = “DELETE FROM customers WHERE address = ‘Mountain 21′”;
  con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Number of records deleted: “ + result.affectedRows);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
  var myquery = { address: ‘Mountain 21‘ };
  dbo.collection(“customers”).deleteOne(myquery, function(err, obj) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“1 document deleted”);
db.close();
});
});
Drop Table/Collectionvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
  var sql = “DROP TABLE customers”;
con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“Table deleted”);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
dbo.collection(“customers”).drop(function(err, delOK) {
if (err) throw err;
if (delOK) console.log(“Collection deleted”);
db.close();
});
});
Updatevar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
  var sql = “UPDATE customers SET address = ‘Canyon 123’ WHERE address = ‘Valley 345′”;
  con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result.affectedRows + ” record(s) updated”);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
var myquery = { address: “Valley 345” };
var newvalues = { $set: {name: “Mickey”, address: “Canyon 123” } };
dbo.collection(“customers”).updateOne(myquery, newvalues, function(err, res) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(“1 document updated”);
db.close();
});
});
Limitvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
var sql = “SELECT * FROM customers LIMIT 5″;
con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://localhost:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
dbo.collection(“customers”).find().limit(5).toArray(function(err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
db.close();
});
});
Joinvar mysql = require(‘mysql’);

var con = mysql.createConnection({
host: “localhost”,
user: “yourusername”,
password: “yourpassword”,
database: “mydb”
});

con.connect(function(err) {
if (err) throw err;
var sql = “SELECT users.name AS user, products.name AS favorite FROM users JOIN products ON users.favorite_product = products.id;
con.query(sql, function (err, result) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(result);
});
});

var MongoClient = require(‘mongodb’).MongoClient;
var url = “mongodb://127.0.0.1:27017/”;MongoClient.connect(url, function(err, db) {
if (err) throw err;
var dbo = db.db(“mydb”);
dbo.collection(‘orders’).aggregate([
    { $lookup:
{
from: ‘products’,
localField: ‘product_id’,
foreignField: ‘_id’,
as: ‘orderdetails’
}
}
    ]).toArray(function(err, res) {
if (err) throw err;
console.log(JSON.stringify(res));
db.close();
});
});

Decisive Point

Main Differences: MongoDB vs. MySQL

MongoDB stores data in the form of JSON like documents making use of MongoDB query language (MQL) for access. Every field will be unique and will differ across documents. Schema validation can be used to enforce data governance controls over each collection.

mongodb industry uses

Image Source: https://enlyft.com/tech/products/mongodb

Various industry niches that have absorbed MongoDB in their development portfolio are Computer Software, Information Technology and Services, Internet, Marketing and Advertising, Hospital & Health Care, Financial Services, Higher Education, Computer Hardware, Telecommunications and Retail and many more.

MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) from Oracle Corporation storing data in tables. It can be used to access data in an application, merge multiple tables in a process called a join.

The database schema is predefined with set rules to govern the relationships between fields in the tables of the database.

Why is MongoDB preferable to MySQL?

  • MongoDB helps develop applications faster by handling diverse data types and manage applications efficiently.
  • Development is simplified with MongoDB as MongoDB documents map naturally to modern, object-oriented programming languages.
  • The complex object-relational mapping (ORM) layer that translates objects in code to relational tables can be removed by making use of MongoDB.
  • Making use of MongoDB gives the ability to scale the database according to changing business requirements.
  • Alternatively, the rigidity of MySQL’s relational structure adds overheads to build applications and slows the developers down as they must adapt objects in code to a relational database structure.
  • MongoDB can be scaled within and across multiple distributed data center thus providing required scalability and availability.
  • MongoDB developers can efficiently handle large volumes of data and throughput quite easily without any downtimes or without changing the way the application works.
  • Another way around, scalability is difficult to achieve with MySQL and MySQL developers often require custom engineering work.

Conclusive

Both MySQL and MongoDB have their strengths and weaknesses. So if there is a requirement where the data is required to have multi-row transactions or have to support a legacy application, a relational database may be the right choice for the business organization.  But if a more flexible and schema-free solution is required to work with unstructured data, then MongoDB will be preferable. The performance of MongoDB is improved over MySQL as MongoDB does not make use of joins to connect data, improving performance. Regardless of which one you select, MySQL vs. MongoDB can be used to create single data management that connects your MySQL, MongoDB, Cloud and more such solutions without the need to code. Konstant Infosolutions help serves business communities with relevant projects acknowledging them as outstanding by others in their field. If there is a need to requisition some evidence you may request a free quote. We will be happy to assist!

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About Author
Neeti Kotia

Neeti Kotia

Neeti got her master's degree in software engineering in 2009 and has been working since for software companies of all sizes as a technical writer. What started as a high school passion has now been converted into a serious profession. She has a special knack of learning from all verticals and imbibing the extracts into her writing. She enjoys learning technical aspects of writing from her tasks where her experience and understanding are most impactful.

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